Officials say the powerful earthquake was felt through the island Wednesday morning.
Buildings in the capital city of Taipei were seen swaying and sections of the high-speed rail were suspended from service to be inspected for damage.
According to officials at least one person was killed when a temple wall collapsed in the rural county of Nantou. At least 19 others were injured, mostly by falling debris.
A few school buildings in the region saw minor damage, but government authorities say the structures remained intact.
Taiwan is prone to experiencing earthquakes, most of which are minor and cause little or no damage.
In 1999 however, a magnitude 7.6 quake struck the region killing more than 2,300 people.
With files from CNN