The quake struck a few minutes before 11 p.m. near Prague, about 80 km east of Oklahoma City.
The U.S. Geological Service upgraded the quake's initial magnitude from 5.2 to 5.6, making it the most powerful quake ever to strike the state.
Five homes were damaged in the quake -- one of which seemed to be totally destroyed. There were no reports of injuries, but emergency authorities were flooded with calls about damage to homes and roads. An area highway buckled in several places and residents reported cracks in their walls, floors and ceilings.
Shaking was felt across the state and in neighbouring Texas, Kansas and Tennessee.
The quake came just hours after a magnitude 4.7 temblor struck the same area. That quake early Saturday morning was followed by half a dozen smaller earthquakes measuring in magnitude from 2.7 to 3.6.
Aftershocks continued to rattle the region through the night.
Earthquakes are not uncommon in Oklahoma. Several earthquakes of magnitude 4.0 or greater have been recorded since the 1920s.
Previously, the strongest quake recorded in the state was a magnitude 5.5 that struck El Reno in 1952, toppling chimneys and opening a 15-meter-long crack in the State Capitol building.
The severity of the earthquake startled residents who are typically used to seeing strong tornadoes. Earthquakes in the area are generally mild.
With files from the Associated Press